Sourdough bread is a traditional form of bread that is crafted by fermenting flour with yeast. The resulting product is rich in nutrients, including antioxidants, and has antifungal properties. It is also higher in fiber and lower in cholesterol than other types of bread.
Increased blood glucose levels
When fermenting sourdough bread, there are several ways in which the postprandial glucose and insulin responses can be affected. This may have positive implications for metabolic disorders and weight management. The use of sourdough in the production of whole grain breads has been reported to result in a greater decrease in the AUC for postprandial insulin, compared to other forms of bread.
Several studies have been conducted to examine the effects of sourdough fermentation. Among these, one study found that sourdough rye bread produced lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Another study showed that the GIP response to sourdough and white bread was not significantly different.
Studies have also examined the effect of sourdough use on the texture, flavour, and shelf life of breads. There is evidence to suggest that sourdough fermentation increases the interaction between starch and gluten proteins, which may help to mitigate the blood glucose rise that can be seen with conventional baking. In addition, sourdough fermentation has been found to produce organic acids, which are believed to improve glucose tolerance.
Breads enriched with organic acids can also improve the postprandial glucose and insulin responses. However, the exact mechanism of action is still unclear. Regardless of the effects, these compounds have the potential to promote weight loss and increase dietary fiber consumption.
Sourdough rye bread has been shown to reduce GI symptoms in patients with Celiac disease. In fact, Peter Green, director of the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University, notes that “Sourdough rye bread may reduce gastrointestinal discomfort in some individuals. For other people, it could have the opposite effect. That is, it might help them feel full and reduce their appetite.”
In order to test the impact of sourdough on the glucose and insulin responses, four breads made from two wheat flours were leavened with two distinct processes. Four subjects were fed 50 grams of each bread and assessed for insulin and glucose responses.
Improved nutritional content
Sourdough bread has unique properties that can improve digestive health. The bacteria present in sourdough may help improve the microbiota in the gut. This helps absorb nutrients from food. In addition, sourdough bread is easier to digest than other types of bread.
Sourdough bread is made using fermentation and contains less gluten than other breads. Gluten is a protein found in certain grains. People who are unable to digest gluten may experience symptoms such as stomach pain, bloating, and diarrhea. Fortunately, people with gluten sensitivity may be able to tolerate sourdough.
Some of the advantages of sourdough bread include decreased gluten content, reduced antinutrients, and a better glycemic index. These factors make it more desirable for people with digestive disorders. There are also positive effects on weight loss and satiety.
Lactic acid bacteria are responsible for the sour taste of sourdough. They also help increase the absorption of protein and soluble fibre. Moreover, they may decrease the starch hydrolysis index.
Other nutrients and compounds are released during the fermentation process. These can affect the bioavailability of nutrients in the flour. Therefore, the nutrition of sourdough depends on the type of flour used.
The chemical composition of the flour affects the assembly of lactic acid bacteria. Furthermore, temperature and redox potential play an important role.
There are other breads that contain chemicals and preservatives that can affect the flavor of the bread. Luckily, sourdough has a much shorter ingredient list than other breads.
Legumes are great ingredients to use in baked goods. They are fermented to produce breads with high protein and starch digestibility. They are also fortifiers and fortified foods. However, research on legume flour has been limited.
Improved textural quality
Sourdough bread is considered a promising alternative to traditional bakery products. It offers a wide range of benefits, including improved shelf life and nutrient bioavailability. In addition, it also provides a more sour and “sourdough” taste.
Sourdough has been used in many cultures for millennia. In the last thirty years, using advanced scientific tools, sourdough has been revisited. Many of the mechanisms behind its use are still not understood.
Traditional procedures for sourdough fermentation have been modified to meet the demands of large-scale automated bread production. However, the traditional processes retain their relevance in artisanal bread production. Nevertheless, they are often subject to the exploitation of alternative raw materials.
The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in sourdough fermentation produce a variety of metabolites, such as alcohols and enzymes, that have a positive effect on the physical and sensory qualities of the product. Some of the metabolites have a strong influence on the texture and flavour of the fermented product.
Different LAB strains can also affect the textural properties of sourdough bread. For example, a sourdough bread with the LD7 strain of Pediococcus pentosaceus has the highest tasting characteristics. Also, sourdough with a moderate acidity level has been shown to improve the flavour of wheat bread.
These results indicate that the addition of a sourdough can improve the quality of sorghum-based gluten-free bread. It could also help to compensate for the negative effects of wheat bran.
Various factors affect the quality of bread, such as pH, water content, flour type, bacterial activity, and temperature. Among these, the most reliable assessment measure is physical quality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the potential of sourdough to improve the textural and flavour qualities of sorghum-based GF breads.
Sourdough bread is a popular food for a number of reasons. It has a unique texture and flavor. Plus, it is packed with healthy carbs, protein, and fiber. The best part is that it is also low in fat and cholesterol. However, it may not be suitable for people with high cholesterol.
In a recent study, the authors explored the effects of sourdough on cardiovascular disease risk. They investigated two groups of participants: those with a higher glycemic load (GL) and those with a lower GL.
Sourdough wholemeal bread was associated with a lower postprandial glucose response. The lower GL may reduce risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Meanwhile, it may also help people lose weight due to its glycemic index and glycemic load ratings.
Those who were exposed to sourdough bread had increased serum TAG and HDL-cholesterol. This may be attributed to the increase in beneficial bacteria.
Among participants with a normal glycemic load, those who consumed sourdough bread had decreased serum LDL-cholesterol. These participants were identified as having an APOE E3/E3 genotype.
Participants were given six slices of whole grain wheat sourdough bread per day for 6 weeks. Compared to white bread, it had a higher amount of prebiotics and probiotics.
Sourdough fermentation may also decrease the glycemic load and glycemic index. Fermentation can change the structure of carb molecules.
Sourdough is also rich in vitamins and minerals. This includes vitamin C, selenium, and manganese. And it is low in trans fats.
Sourdough is also easier to digest than other types of bread. People who are sensitive to gluten, for instance, may experience stomach pain or diarrhea when they eat sourdough. That is why it is important to consult a doctor before adding sourdough to your diet.
Sourdough bread is highly resistant to mould, as it contains powerful antifungal compounds. The antifungal activity of sourdough LAB is attributed to two mechanisms. One mechanism is the synthesis of a wide variety of antagonistic compounds, which bind and remove mycotoxins. Another mechanism is the microbial conversion of linoleic acid, which is present in bread flour. This converts the fatty acid into monohydroxy C18:1 fatty acids.
In addition to the synthesis of fatty acids, sourdough LAB produces an assortment of other inhibitory metabolites. These are grouped into two classes: organic acids and peptides.
Organic acids are the most important contributors to the antifungal activity of sourdough. These include phenyllactic acid and lactic acid. Some of these metabolites were identified by thin-layer chromatography. Several other inhibitory compounds were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Several LAB isolates were isolated from sourdough cultures. These strains were tested for their in vitro inhibitory abilities against spoilage molds. Isolate 1 showed the most potent inhibition against A. niger. However, the antifungal activities of other LAB were not verified.
To further study the sourdough LAB’s antifungal potentials, a series of independent experiments was performed. During each experiment, a sterile disc containing the spores of Aspergillus niger was placed on a blank disc. After seven storage days, the growth of the fungi was monitored at 25 degC. Statistical analysis was done using Tukey’s pairwise multiple comparison test. There were significant differences at the confidence level of P values ranging from 0.04 to 0.05.
Antifungal activity was also evaluated by water-soluble extracts obtained from sourdoughs. Several novel antifungal peptides were found in these extracts. Among them, 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic acid was identified in the culture filtrates.