Collagen from chicken feet is a bioactive peptide that is used as a supplement to help with bone health. In fact, it is also used in cosmetics and facial masks. Its potential uses are being explored to see if it can be used for a variety of applications.
Molecular weight determination
If you’re interested in collagen, the molecular weight of chicken feet may be something that interests you. This is because the molecule is one of the most abundant proteins in the body. It helps to keep bones strong, maintains the shape of your body, and provides resistance. Collagen also is known to aid in the health of your heart and skin.
Traditionally, denaturation of collagen has been done using acid solutions. But recent research has clarified collagen structures. Some studies have even identified 13 or more types of molecules.
As for the molecular weight of chicken feet, this is not necessarily the best measure. However, a single protein molecule can be broken into small peptides, and this is what results in the low viscosity. Using a variety of extraction techniques, researchers have isolated specific peptides and have compared their functional properties.
The collagen molecule is actually a triple helix structure. Each of its helix segments is strongly bonded to the next by hydrogen bonds. A helix has a molecular weight of about 150 kDa, while the volume of a molecule is about 0.70.
For the molecule to function properly, a large number of molecules need to associate. This process is called hydrolysis. Depending on the method of hydrolysis, the amino acids will vary in their sequence.
Collagen peptides can be used to treat degenerative musculoskeletal diseases. These compounds can also be applied to food systems for improved nutrition and increased functionality.
Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body. It is an amphoteric macromolecule, meaning it has the ability to act as an electron donor. Because of its high concentration, it is important to treat bone problems with collagen to help restore strength and improve overall joint and muscle health.
Collagen is a fibrillated macromolecule which plays a critical role in the functions of a cell. It provides structural integrity, strength, and protection to skin and bone.
There are several types of collagen. The most common is type II. Other types of collagen are type I and III. They are all composed of a triple helix molecule, two nonhelical regions, and terminal globular domains.
Collagen is found in various tissue types, including pig and bovine tissues. In addition to its biological functions, it is also used to build tissue engineering scaffolds. For instance, it can be used to manufacture a wound dressing system.
The composition of the amino acids determines the characteristics of collagen. These characteristics include its molecular weight, pH, and pI values. A higher pI value indicates a greater concentration of hydrolyzed collagen. Hydrolyzed collagen has a lower molecular weight and low viscosity.
Moreover, the degree of hydrolysis increases its bioavailability. This increase in its bioactivity may prevent bone loss, heal damaged blood vessels, and enhance joint health. Besides, it helps to inhibit the absorption of pathogens.
Several methods are used for extracting collagen. However, acetic acid is an ideal solvent. Another method is acid solubilization. During the process, collagen molecules are dissolved in acetic acid and then immersed in distilled water at 70oC for 90 minutes.
The pI of collagen is between seven and eight. Depending on the type of chemical used during the extraction, the pH value of the gelatin will vary.
To obtain the maximum yield of collagen, it is important to choose the correct pH value of the final product. Chicken feet have a higher pH value than commercial bovine gelatin.
WVT test to verify the permeabizing of biotherapeutic collagen films
One of the most impressive achievements of the polycoccus clausii is its ability to make biotherapeutic collagen films for the birds of a feather. The process is aided by a host of technological wizards including microprocessors, chromatography and polymer synthesis. This may be the first time a clone has been employed in this way. Although it’s a challenging task, the rewards are well worth the effort. A good rule of thumb is to allow the process to occur in a temperature controlled environment, preferably a controlled laboratory, as this will ensure the highest quality of product possible. For example, the process is capable of generating over a thousand films per hour. In fact, a recent study shows that the technology can sustain a continuous output of over ten thousand per hour, with no adverse side effects. Obviously, one of the most important tasks is ensuring that the product is free of contaminants and that it is safe for human consumption. So, it’s no wonder that the process has a large following. As a result, a number of companies have sprung up. They include the likes of such luminaries as Axel Behn and David Levy.
There are a variety of methods used to determine the presence of collagen in various materials. Among them is FTIR spectroscopy. This technique allows one to measure the number of amide-activated groups in a sample and thus predict the secondary structure of the material.
The chicken feet collagen FT-IR spectrum was investigated. It shows the increase in absorptions for NH and -OH stretching. Also, a peak at 2924 cm-1 indicates the presence of an asymmetric stretch of CH2.
A major protein band was detected at 198 kDa. It is a typical collagen group. Another major band at 3339 cm-1 suggests the interaction of a -NH3 group between peptide chains.
The FTIR spectra of different collagens were similar. However, it was observed that the poly-l-lysine hydrobromide absorbances were higher than that of the collagen fibers. These differences may be due to the specificities of the materials or the operational procedures involved.
Using the diamond attenuated total reflectance technique, one can more effectively approach the collagen I fibers in raw extended tendons. At the same time, Mie scattering is avoided.
In terms of the FTIR spectra, there are two major peaks: one at 1230-1371 cm-1 (pyrrolidine ring vibration of hydroxyproline), and the other at 1744 cm-1 (the alpha triple helix structure). They both show the same function: the introduction of a hydrogen bond.
Two different methods were used to generate the protein pattern: sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the Nicolet iS5 FTIR spectrometer equipped with an ATR/iD3 horizontal cell. For the latter, automatic signals were gained.
As expected, the collagen type I was the most abundant. The corresponding FTIR spectrum showed an increase in absorptions for NH and C-N stretching vibrations.
Application of collagen in cosmetics, facial masks, and artificial tissues
Chicken feet collagen can be used as an alternative source of high quality material. Several studies have been conducted on this type of material. They show that it has the same sensorial and chemical properties as commercial gelatin.
Collagen is a protein that aids the skin in holding water. It also promotes skin rejuvenation. As a result, many consumers are switching to natural skincare products.
Chicken feet collagen can be used as an alternative to commercial gelatin. It also has a great odor and sensorial quality.
The skin of chicken feet contains several essential nutrients and beneficial properties. These benefits allow it to be useful as a new material.
Collagen and gelatin extracted from natural sources have been recently explored in pharmaceutical and medical fields. However, they are prone to greater restrictions due to health concerns. Therefore, more research is needed to validate applications.
An experiment was conducted to examine the bio-therapeutic application of chicken feet collagen. A factorial design was employed to analyze the response surfaces.
The results showed that the hedonic scale value of the sample of chicken collagen gelatin was close to seven points. This shows that consumers are satisfied with its quality.
Additionally, the organoleptic properties of the material were satisfactory. The color and texture of the film samples were similar to that of commercial gelatin.
Another study was conducted to evaluate the chemical properties of the material. ICP-MS analysis revealed that the material has a significant amide peak.
Swelling tests were also performed. The film swelled due to a high degree of crosslinking. This was correlated to the degree of water absorption power.
Water vapor transmission rate (WVT) was also measured. The test is based on a 10 cm2 area of the film.